House Of Representatives

Hunter For Congress

It is an honor to serve as your voice in the House of Representatives. The decisions made in Washington, D.C. impact our lives every day. As your representative, I fight
for our district, our values and our nation.

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Duncan Hunter for Congress

Real Economic Growth

Real Economic Growth that comes from a vibrant private sector. Fight the Obama/Pelosi takeover of every industry in the United States. Implement reform that will incentivize hard working Americans and entrepreneurs to create jobs.

Tax cuts and fiscal responsibility

Tax cuts and fiscal responsibility are the keys to economic recovery and job growth. The American people are overtaxed and the government spends too much.

Energy independence

The only way to free ourselves from terrorist despots who negotiate international policy using oil prices is to keep working on alternative energy while at the same time following an “all of the above” approach.

Important Pages

Rep. Duncan Hunter’s Principles

Individual Liberty

Individual liberty and personal responsibility are the cornerstones of our great nation. The federal government’s role should be limited to protecting and defending our God given freedoms.

strong national security

Maintain a strong national security policy that funds the Army, Navy, Air Force and Marine Corps at appropriate levels and doesn’t cut defense spending during wartime for the first time in American history.

Border Security

Border Security that includes a COMPLETELY secure southern and northern border. Border security is national security. NO AMNESTY for those here illegally.

California’s 50th Congressional District

About Duncan Hunter

Duncan D. Hunter currently represents California’s 50th Congressional District in the U.S. House of Representatives, consisting mainly of East San Diego County. With the latest redrawing of state-wide Congressional Districts, Duncan is now a candidate for the 50thCongressional District, which holds parts of East County, North County and the city of Temecula in Riverside County.


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Important Constitutional Powers of Congress in the United States

Powers of Congress

Congress forms a significant part of the United States legislation in the United States which  is responsible for making important decisions. The Congress or any other party of the United States follows the constitution, created in 1789, with the legislative branch as the most innovative one. The founders of Congress intended the party to have powers more significant than the President and the Supreme Court. However, the federal system of government in the United States prevents Congress from having the ultimate power, and every party should follow the constitution.

The congress party of the United States comprises the two:

  • The house of representatives called the upper house
  • The Senate called the lower house

Both these houses follow a lot of roles and responsibilities and some of which are mentioned below in this article:

Constitutional powers

The constitution grants special powers to the members of Congress and the legislative assembly in an authoritative tone so that they can make important decisions related to its execution. The members utilize their constitutional powers to execute a proposed bill or law. Both bodies share these constitutional powers for the following:

  • Knowing about coin money
  • The rules of immigration
  • Establishing federal courts
  • Declaring wars

The constitution also provides different, exclusive powers separately to the House of Representatives, such as:

Constitutional powers

  • Revenue bills: These must originate in the lower house or the house of representatives. Although this was strong, it has blurred over the years in both houses. This also includes the possible tax cuts in different executive branches.
  • Impeachment Power: Impeachment is the removal of a president from their authority and power when there is a wrongdoing in the house. With a simple majority, a President can be impeached from his position.

The different powers given to the Senate include the following:

  • Advance and consent: The Senate is responsible for taking up primary presidential appointments and confirming their passing as the bill. After a majority vote by the deferral judges, the ambassadors and the other cabinet ministers take advice from the Senate on further appointments.
  • Treaties:A two-thirds majority in the Senate must approve the plans for treaties with other nations. This is another provision for checks and illustrations, which will have essential restrictions on policies and presidential powers.
  • Impeachment trial:This occurs in the Senate. If the whole house votes to impeach the President or the elected official, a hearing about the topic is held in the Senate. When there is a two-thirds majority, the individual is removed. It is similar to the presidential impeachment but with different officials.

Difference between the powers of the House and Senate


  • It initiates all the revenue bills
  • Initiated all the impeachment procedures
  • Elected for a term of 2 years
  • 435 members


  • Confirm all presidential appointments
  • Impeachment of officials
  • Elected for a term of 6 years
  • 100 members

Women in American Politics

American Politics

To achieve full equality among society and its members, having women in the government is essential. Women’s participation in political and public life will help attain Self-Development Goals, satisfy women’s needs in the state or country and represent unity.

Though 142 women will be serving in Congress in 2021, including women of color, than ever before, the number is still only a quarter of the total Congress population. Yet, women in American politics push themselves to bring change and shape the nation’s policies, laws, and organizations. Comparatively, women are contributing to politics to support diverse contributors and break into new government rules than before. Today, Kamala Harris became the first woman of color to take the lead as Vice President.

History of women in American politics

As the nation kept developing, women’s political participation rose. Though it wasn’t easy, women got their roles in the government and political movements. However, women were excluded from politics for a long time, and they had to fight for their place in the government role.

There was a common way for women to enter Congress in the 1970s, described as “widow’s succession.” It was to replace the deceased male relative.

Some of the notable women in American politics

Abigail Adams was the first politically active and brave lady who spoke her rights into politics in 1776. She was the first lady to the second president of the U.S. After the demise of her husband, John Adams, she spoke out about women’s issues in the nation.

Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton: In aspect to fight for women’s rights, they both founded the National Women Suffrage Association in 1869.

Julia C. Addington became the first woman elected to public office in the U.S.

Jeanette Rankin came from Montana and was the first woman to be elected to Congress. She also stated that she might be the first woman to be elected but won’t be the last.

elected to Congress

Nellie Tayloe Ross became the first woman governor in 1925, replacing her late husband.

Sandra Day O’Connor was the first woman to serve as U.S. Supreme court justice in 1981.

Madeleine Albright became the first female secretary of state in 1997.

Hillary Clinton was the first woman to run for president nominee.

Kamala Harris became the first woman, Indian American, and African American to serve as vice president in 2021

Women in American politics represent leadership through which the political environment will fall in place, like eliminating gender-based violence, childcare, gender-equality laws, and so on.

In 1920, the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution granted women the right to vote. By now, a record 144 women are serving in the 117th Congress, which increased the percentage to 50 over a decade.

Women’s roles in American politics are evolving increasingly, opening new opportunities for them to be decision-makers in politics.

The legislative branch of the United States

Legislative Branch

The US political system is unique and comprises of different branches. This division helps in maintain a balance e of power and ensures the proper use of power to maintain decorum in the country. According to Article I of the US constitution, the legislative branch comprises two different branches:

  • The house of representatives
  • The Senate

Together, these two bodies form the United States Congress, which comprises the sole authority to declare war, run taxes, maintain presidential appointments, and investigate other substantial powers.

The House of Representatives

It comprises 435 elected members, out of which 50 are divided among states with different populations. In addition to these, there are six nonvoting members in the house. They are:

  • Members of the District of Columbia
  • Commonwealth of Puerto Rico
  • Four union territories of the United States

In this branch, the President is the house speaker and is re-elected byte the representatives. This house’s members are represented every two years after they follow the criteria for appearing in the election. The house solely has many powers assigned to it, which include:

The Senate

  • Impeachment of the President and other officials
  • Electing the President inc case of an electoral tie
  • Generating revenue and tax bills; etc

In cases where the President cannot fulfill the powers, the Vice president takes the position and casts a decisive vote.

The Senate

Just like the House of Representatives, the Senate also has certain power divisions – one of the primary ones includes confirming all the presidential appointments and also to rectify and provide consent to all foreign treaties, with the following exceptions:

  • The house must agree to the appointment of the vice president
  • The Senate is responsible for all decisions by federal officials in the house.

Powers of the US Congress

The congress has significant powers of the Constitution, vested upon the citizens in bold. Moreover, Congress comprises almost all legislative powers, which means they can also make new laws or mend the existing ones to ensure the smooth flow of governmental procedures.

One of the most potent responsibilities of Congress is that it can pass the bills in the state even if it is stored by the President when it receives a two–thirds majority in the house. All the powers of Congress are mentioned in article 1 of the Constitution. It also has the right to execute all the powers that seem right in the situation while abiding by the Constitution.

Both chambers of Congress also have certain authorities and extensive investigation powers, which would help in collecting certain pieces of evidence and proof in case of need. They are also formed to split the balance of power in the state.

Everything about the US Congress

US Congress

The United States follows a federal system of government, which is bicameral. Bicameral means the entire government is divided into two bodies – the upper body called the Senate and the lower body called the House of Representatives. Both the houses or bodies are housed in Washington DC, in the US Capitol.

The US congress comprises 535 members, of which 100 are senators, and the rest 435 are house representatives. The Congress party has a two-year term, after which elections are held on Election Day, where every citizen has the right to vote for their desired candidate.

US Congress

Overview of the US Congress

The two bodies of congress – the House of Representatives and Senate are considered the equal partners of the congress committee, which are responsible for making the right legislative decisions. Any bill or law connoted bypassed without consent from members of both these Houses. Each member in both houses is granted some powers in the constitution. For instance, The Senate is responsible for approving presidential appointments, and the House is responsible for raising revenue bills and other activities.

Currently, the 117th congress is in progress, which will end on 3rd January 2023. The members of the Senate is called senator, and the members of the House are called congressmen or congresswomen or the members of the House of representatives. One of the primary responsibilities of the House is to initiate the impeachment of cases and the House, on the decision, considers the impeachments.

Congress is considered the driving force of the American government, whose main aim is to provide freedom to its citizens and lend them an ear to solve all their problems. It is also considered the soul and heart of the democratic United States, which will help in delivering extraordinary public services to people.

Role of the US Congress

Most of the US Congress’s powers are mentioned in article one of the constitution in section eight. Congress has many different powers, some of which include:

  • Laying down taxes and bills
  • The general welfare of the people of the United States
  • Collection of taxes and imposition of excises
  • National defense and the decision of whether or not to impose war
  • The respective members of congress can issue patents
  • Fix standards for measurement for the entire world to follow
  • Execute foreign powers and interfere with decisions regarding the supreme court.
  • Checks and balances all the different whereabouts in the nation
  • Oversees all the constitutional responsibilities
  • Enumeration of powers, laws, and other amendments by the constitutional governments
  • Taking care of all foreign affairs and making the right decisions regarding their implementation.
  • Mend constitutional laws according to the needs of people and ensure their proper delivery in the country

Bicameral Political System in the United States

Political System

A bicameral system means having two different houses in the government which take care of different queries. For example, the US political system is divided into the House of Representatives and the Senate. These two bodies make up the US Congress. It also follows a unicameral system where all members of the legislature vote as a single group.

Working of the US bicameral system

As mentioned above, there are two different chambers for a bicameral legislature. Both chambers have different rules and methods of selecting members and organizations regarding how they can execute and take responsibility for their duties. Apart from the legislative branch, the executive and the judiciary are the two other branches of the US [political system, which are responsible for taking necessary actions to ensure a smooth government.

legislative branch

There are practical and historical reasons for the US to have two houses in their government. The practical reason is to ensure the smooth running of government by dividing duties among different operations to keep law and order in check and cater to the needs of the people. Hence, by dividing powers among parties, the legislative will not have much power over the other bodies, ensuring a balance.

The history of the bicameral system dates back to the medivial European times when there was a distinction between the commoners, the clergy, and the nobilities. Different groups of representatives in different social spheres separated them. However, in the US, this system was stated with a reason to establish equal balance and power in the legislative branch. It was also aimed at solving disagreements when allocated with representation.

The reason behind the bicameral establishment

Aside from reducing authority in one branch, the bicameral legislature was also established by the founders of the US to have separation of powers. However, most Northern and Southern states started quarreling over the distinction of power at the federal level. This was followed by a movement called ‘The Great Compromise,’ which gave rise to the senate and the house of representatives.

Now, almost 41% of the government is bicameral, ad almost 59% follow a unicameral legislative system. Other countries which follow this system include the UK, India, Germany, Australia, Brazil, and others.

State governments

State governments

The US state government has two senators, both of whom have equal representation, who are directly voted by the public for a term of 6 years. The requirements for appearing for a senate position include the following:

  • Minimum 25 years
  • US citizen for at least seven years
  • Must be at least 30 years old
  • The resident of the state which they wish to represent

Each senate and each senator will have unique powers, including presidential impeachment. A bill is introduced in the house of representatives and passed to the Senate for approval, upon which it becomes a law.

The US Political System – Guide for Immigrants

US Political System

The US political system is not complex and can be easily understood by immigrants worldwide. Like any other country, it is divided into different sectors, each taking care of different duties. Although it might be a bit intimidating in the beginning, it is important to understand thoroughly to have a better knowledge of the country you’re moving into!

The constitution depicts the entire structure of the US political system. It is divided into the following:

  • The US Political System
  • The Three Branches of Government
  • The Federalist System
  • US Elections

The US government and the congress are like a Francophone transplant which the 18th-century philosopher inspires. The advocation of power is divided into three different branches:

  • Executive
  • Legislative
  • Judicial

This division of power is done to divide responsibilities among groups to maintain checks and balances. Each of these branches is discussed in detail in the following article.

The Executive branch

This branch is run entirely by the President, elected by the electoral college. The President is considered the first citizen and the head of the state who resides and governs from the White House. The present is also the commander in chief of the US armed forces, which primarily passes all the laws by the legislative branch. To help in the further division of power, they are divided into 15 cabinet ministers appointed to advise the President on different matters. It is passed over to the Vice President if the President is unavailable to exercise their duties.

Legislative Branch

The legislative branch has two primary functions:

  • To curate the laws governing the country
  • To collect funds for running the government

To consider a bill as a law, each branch member has to vote in favor of the decision. After that, it can either be vetoed or divided to be passed as a bill, depending on the number of votes. It is further divided into two branches to execute the tasks effectively, known as the bicameral legislature. Finally, the people vote for the members to exercise their duties effectively. The House of Representatives also has six non-voting members – Puerto Rican, the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, The US Virgin Islands, The District of Columbia, and Guam.

The Senate is also a part of the legislative branch, comprising 100 senators in the upper chamber. Every senator holds the office for six years to exercise their duties.

Judicial branch

This branch comprises the supreme court with 13 circuit courts and 94 district courts. The two primary powers of the branch include:

  • Interpreting the law to specific cases
  • Determining whether a particular law abides by the US Constitution

Whatever the judicial branch takes decisions, the entire country should abide by the decision.

American Political Parties

American Political

The United States of America has a two-party system with two major parties. These two major political parties are the Republican Party and the Democratic Party. Other than these two, other minor parties in the U.S. are called “third parties,” such as Libertarians, Constitution Party, The Green Party, and Natural Law Party.

In the U.S. elections, parties don’t see the significant votes but the plurality of votes, which is a higher percentage of votes than the other parties. Hence, one of the two major political parties seems to win the elections every year as it gets the most plural votes. Many people, towards the third parties, tend to vote for any of the two major parties to be among the candidates who voted for the winning party. Therefore, either the Democratic party or the Republican Party wins in every election leaving behind the third parties. It is because these two major political parties have their agendas closer to the general public.

The Republican Party

The logo of the Republican Party is the Elephant. This party derived its name in 1792 from supporters of Thomas Jefferson, who supported the decentralized government. The Republican Party was first called as Grand Old Party (GOP). During the 19th century, this party stood against the extension of slavery and, ultimately, abolished slavery. Therefore, the main agenda of the Republican Party is family and individual freedom. It is “pro-life” and hence opposes the right to abortion and believes in unborn fetuses’ right to live.

The first President of the Republican Party was Abraham Lincoln, who won 18 Northern States with 40 percent of the popular vote. With Abraham Lincoln winning the election, seven Southern States quit the Union, due to which the country dropped into American Civil War. However, the Republicans safeguard the right to hold arms as articulated in the Second Amendment of the U.S. Constitution to this day.

The Democratic Party

The logo of the Democratic Party is a Donkey. It served as the country’s first major opposition party in 1796, with John Adams winning the election. The critical agenda of this party is the social responsibility that leans towards the left wing leading to progressive and ideological values. Democrats believe that a powerful government will ensure a strong society.

The Democratic Party funds healthcare facilities and social services for all U.S. citizens. It also supports the right to abortion and LGBTQ+ rights to equal treatment under the law, hence believing in the separation of church and state as stated in the U.S. constitution.


Presidential elections take place in the United States every four years:

  1. The elections occur, in which presidential candidates for the two parties are elected.
  2. When the candidates for each party are officially selected, the actual presidential election begins. After that, the election campaign begins for the two parties.
  3. The elected person will be sworn in as the President of the United States of America at an inauguration ceremony held in Washington, D.C.

The current President of the U.S.A. is the member of the Democratic Party, Joe Biden, serving as the 46th President from 20th January 2021.

Political Parties of the United States

Political Parties

The US is always in the news for its political drama and the power they portray to the world. The reason behind this is the well-maintained political system which helps maintain decorum in the nation. The politics of the United States is divided into two major parties – the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. Although there are other parties during elections, their alliances often fall loose and ultimately fail to overcome the power of the republicans and the Democrats.

The republic party rose to power in the 1850s, and since then, only a tiny portion of other political parties have risen to power. America’s two-party system is one of the primary reasons for the failure of the risers of smaller parties in the nation.

Every part of the United States has conservative and liberal wings, and sometimes both of them have ideologies in common. During elections, the members of the democratic and republican parties are placed on the election ballot directly, while the smaller parties ought to fill in registrations and other formalities to enter the ballot.

Responsibilities of political parties

One of the primary aims of forming political parties is to cater to the needs of the people and fulfill all their duties mentioned in the constitution. Here are some of the responsibilities they ought to follow:

National security

The Homeland security department is responsible for protecting the United States against terrorist attacks and has been in power for over 50 years. The responsibilities of this department are divided into four directories:

  • Border and transport security
  • Emergency Preparedness
  • Information analysis and infrastructure protection
  • Science and technology

Domestic law enforcement

Although traditionally, the concept of law enforcement and its delivery is done by police officials, in the 20th century, the number of federal law enforcement officers began to rise. Most of the work is done by police officials, sheriffs, and constables in rural areas. The government also has law enforcement agencies and other patrol systems to ensure people follow the domestic laws of the nation.

National security

Health and welfare

Despite the country’s enormous wealth, it still has many regions where people suffer from extreme poverty. Many programs like Medicare and Social Security developed by the government have significantly helped reduce poverty and provided a roof over the head and daily bread for people in need. The state also helps in assisting all the people in need, irrespective of the political party in power.


Most of the housing in the United States is in the form of detached family homes, which are taken care of by the political bodies in power. Most of the houses are made of wood, shingles, wiener, etc., which the government members decide to ensure the safety of the people living in them.

United States American Congress

American Congress

Congress of the United States was established under the constitution of 1789. The national parliament in the U.S. consists of two houses, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The two chambers of Congress are separate, but mostly, they have an equal role in enacting legislation. Congress must meet at least once a year to agree on the date for adjourning and convening. The House and the Senate vote on the date for adjournment.

Congress has committee system to consider the various business items. Each House of Congress has many permanent standing committees and select special and temporary committees. In addition, the two chambers of Congress form joint committees to have a common interest. Therefore, a bill should receive the most votes in both chambers for legislation to be passed in the United States.

The Senate

The Senate

You must be at least 30 years old to be a member of the Senate and should be a citizen of the U.S. for a minimum of 9 years. Elected Senators, who are about 100 in number, serve a term of six years. Elections in the Senate are held every two years, and only 1/3 of them come forward for re-election each time. Hence, every state has two elections in six years for the Senate.

Being elected as a Senator in the Presidential election is a long process. Most of the candidates represent any of the two major parties. In the primary election, it becomes evident that either a member of Republican or Democrat will have a strong emphasis on some states to be the winner.

House of Representatives

The candidate must be at least 25 years old to run the office. They should have U.S. citizenship for a minimum of 7 years. House of Representatives consists of 435 members, out of which each state has a certain number of representatives based on the population. Unlike the Senate candidates, the House of Representatives members come forward for re-election each time. They serve the term only for two years. Additionally, the candidate who received the maximum votes in the district will get to represent that district in the House.

Power of Congress

Power of Congress

The ability of Congress to enact law is the road to sanction its other actions. The legal authority is delegated to the President and the agencies that are legally responsible for their actions. Actions performed by a delegated authority will be reviewed by Congress, which approves specific plans before they go into effect. Congress also has the right to terminate legislation by the Senate and House of Representatives joint action.

Congress has the power to levy and collect taxes, allowing the authority in fiscal matters. Although the President has the initial responsibility, the power to determine and estimate for the next fiscal year is given to Congress. Several departmental bills are passed during the first six months of a session.

The Presidential Election in the U.S.

Presidential Election

Presidential elections take place every four years in the United States. The presidential nominee will mostly be from the two major parties, Republican and Democratic. A seven-month-long election campaign will begin when the two parties have elected their president and vice president candidates. Along with the candidates from the major parties, a few candidates from minor parties are also on the ballot. The election is held on the first Tuesday of November.

To contest a Presidential election in the U.S., one needs to match with three representatives:

  1. Be 35 years of age or old
  2. Born citizen of the U.S.
  3. Lived in the states for more than 14 years

Out of all these, if the President is elected, they can only serve the term for two years. They cannot be elected thrice.

The U.S. is divided into 50 states, and each state has a certain number of electoral votes decided by the population. 538 votes are split between these 50 states, and the presidential candidate who gets the most electoral votes wins the election. A candidate can win the election by getting the majority of votes compared to another candidate.

Winner has it

With this kind of electoral system, a candidate may win the most popular vote but not become the President. Despite getting more popular votes, there are chances for the opponent to become the President. It has already happened five times in history.

The last it happened was in the 2016 election between Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton. Although Clinton won the popular vote with 48% of all the votes while Trump got 45,9%, Clinton was assigned only 232 electoral votes. Trump was assigned 306 electoral votes and was elected as the President.

What if nobody gets the majority of votes?

If no candidate receives the majority of votes, voting continues in the second round. For both Democrats and Republicans, superdelegates can participate in the vote. They will discuss and vote for a specific candidate. However, by this principle, it is convinced that the ultimate vote will be from the convention itself, not the people. This voting process keeps repeating until one candidate gets the majority of votes and is officially appointed as the President.

After the election day

Congress houses come together on January 6th to count the electoral votes. Then, they will declare the President and Vice President for the term. If the candidates get the same number of votes, the House elects the President, and the Senate elects Vice President.

On January 20th, the president-elect will officially be sworn in as President of the United States of America at an inauguration ceremony in Washington, D.C. The President is then sent to the White House, the President’s official residence. They can live in it during the presidential term.

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